Rice Varieties in India
This booklet was brought out in July 2002 and contains following information -
|History of Development of Rice Variety in India|
Rice breeding programme in India was started by Dr. G. P. Hector, the then Economic Botanist during 1911 in undivided Bengal with headquarters at Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Subsequently, in 1912, a crop specialist was appointed exclusively for rice in Madras Province. Prior to the establishment of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1929, Bengal and Madras were the only provinces which had specialist exclusively for rice crop. After the establishment of ICAR, it initiated rice research projects in various states of the country and by 1950, 82 research stations in 14 states of the country were established, fully devoted for rice research projects. These research stations, mainly by the pure line method of selection, released 445 improved varieties. These varieties were of various kind such as -
Thus, during the pure line period of selection from 1911-1949, the advantage of natural selection have been fully exploited and there have been varieties available for every rice ecology. During the early period of breeding research programme, varieties were developed suitable for specific stress situation or for resistant to particular disease. When, after World War II, synthetic fertilizers became popular, efforts were made to identify varieties which respond to heavy fertilization.
After the establishment of the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) at Cuttak in 1946 by the Govt. of India, rice research and training received an added impetus. There had been a systematic screening of exotic types from the genetic stocks. Besides, for the purpose of direct introduction in the country, many Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Russian types were also tested. The Chinese types, which were first, prior to 1947, tested in Kashmir Valley, found fairly successful and the Japanese and Russian types were found unsuitable under Indian conditions due to poor yield, unacceptable grain qualities and susceptibility to blast.
Inter-racial hybridization programme between japonicas and indicas was initiated during 1950-54. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with a view of improving production of cereal on an international basis after the end of World-War II, launched a collaborative project japonica X indica hybridization in South-East Asian countries. The object of these project was to transfer the high yielding capacity and response to use higher dose of fertilizers into local indica varieties from japonica varieties. Indica varieties were already well adapted to the local conditions and had tolerance to diseases and pests of the region. A parallel project of japonica X indica hybridization was also started by ICAR with the same objectives. These projects could achieve very limited success. Only four varieties, viz. - Malinja and Mashuri in Malaysia, ADT-27 in Tamil Nadu, India and Circna in Australia were released from more than 700 hybrid combinations.
The Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack also started another project in 1960 with a view to evolve high yielding fertilizer responsive varieties with japonica in 11 states. In this project remarkable success was achieved in the development of japonica X indica hybrids.
The International Rice Research Institute was established in the Philippines in 1960 and this institute helped in evolving dwarf high yielding varieties with the concept of improving the plant type in indica rices based on the use of a gene from semi-dwarf Chinese varieties. These high yielding varieties were highlighted during the International Rice Year in 1966 by ICAR through national demonstration trials. This was the beginning of moving towards self-sufficiency in rice production. Further, the ICAR launched the All-India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) in 1965 that helped in co-ordination of interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research results on the country basis for improving the production, productivity and profitability of rice in India.
Inter-racial hybridization programme between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica was started during 1965 onwards. India operated its most intensive rice breeding programmes under the AICRIP with the development of Taichung (Native) - I from the semi-dwarf mutant and achieved remarkable success. Padma and Jaya were the first varieties that emerged from the programme. Subsequently, many semi-dwarf varieties were released by the Central Variety Release Committee and also by the different state agencies. Most of these varieties have got high yield potential.
During the period of inter-racial hybridization between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica which was started during 1965, the most significant achievement is the prolific release of high yielding varieties. Infact 123 varieties were released during this period in 12 years as compared to 51 high yielding varieties released during the four decades prior to 1965. The semi-dwarf varieties have been found superior in efficiency of grain production as compared to the tall traditional varieties.
|Development of Hybrid Rice|
Research programme was initiated during 1970 to develop hybrid rice variety in the country. There was no success in this programme during the subsequent two decades. However, the research programme was accelerated and intensified from 1989 with a mission mode project. With this concerted research efforts, a remarkable success was achieved within a short span of 5 years and half a dozen rice hybrid rice varieties were developed from public and private sectors. The first four hybrid rice varieties were released in the country during 1994. Subsequently, two more hybrid rice varieties were also released. By the end of 2001, a total of 19 hybrid rice varieties were released.
|Variety Release Procedure|
Any variety of agricultural or horticultural crops in being recommended by the Central Seed Committee constituted under the Seeds Act, 1966 for its release and notification for commercial cultivation. This committee is headed by the Secretary (A&C), Dept. of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture.
The Central Seed Committee consists of two sub-committees -
Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for agricultural crops, chaired by DDG (FC), ICAR.
Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for horticultural crops, chaired by DDG (Hort.), ICAR.
The proposal for release and notification of a particular variety is submitted by the concerned breeder through his respective Institute of ICAR or a breeder of the University through his respective State Govt. This proposal is scrutinized and considered by the sub-committee and if the proposal for release of variety is for more than one state, such a variety is released by the Central Seed Committee. In case proposal for release of variety is for one state or specially for a particular zone of the state, such variety is released by the State Seed Committee.
|Seed Production Procedure|
Under the seed production programme, the following classification of seed is in vogue -
|The seed or the research material produced by the breeder by various selection procedure in a pure line variety or clone is known as nucleus seed.|
|It is the seed or vegetative propagating material produced by the breeder who develops or evolves the particular variety. The breeder seed is also produced by other Agricultural Universities under the direct supervision of the breeder of the concerned crop. Breeder seed is the source for the production of foundation seed.|
|Foundation seed is a progeny of breeder seed. It is produced from the genetically pure breeder seed. Foundation seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI) and all States Seeds Development Corporations.|
|Certified seed is produced from foundation seeds. This seed is certified by the State Seed Certification Agency established under the State Governments. Certified seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India and State Seeds Development Corporations under the supervision of State Seed Certification Agencies.|