Frequently Asked Questions

This section is dedicated to providing answers to commonly asked questions by the farmers regarding rice cultivation in general and particular in Bihar.

 

Questions    

 

1. Which varieties have been under cultivation in Bihar in different eco-systems?  
2. Under which soil and climatic conditions rice can be successfully grown?  
3. When Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting can be done for better rice yield?  
4. What are the seed rate for Direct sown as well as Transplanted rice?
5. Which fungicides can be used for seed treatment?
6. How much areas should be required for nursery to transplanting one hectare of land? 
7. What are the recommended dose of manures and fertilizers?
8. Which crops can be grown for green mannuring?
9. Which weedicides can be used for effective control of weeds in rice field?
 10. Which insecticides/pesticides can be used for effective control of different insects/pests in rice field? 
11. How we can manage different types of diseases in rice field?

Q(1). Which varieties have been under cultivation in Bihar in different eco-systems?

Answer

Recommended varieties are -

(A) For Kharif Season

(B) For Winter Season

(C) For Summer Season

(D) Scented Rice

(E) Hybrid Rice

Note: For more details of the rice varieties recommended for different states, kindly see Rice Varieties in India in our web-site.

Q(2). Under which soil and climatic conditions rice can be successfully grown?

Answer

Soil : Heavy to Sandy Loam and almost all types of soil.
Climate : Temperate
Rainfall : 120~140 cm.
Temperature  : 21~30C.

 

 

 

 

Q(3). When Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting can be done for better rice yield?

Answer

Time of Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting are as follows:

Sowing Transplanting Harvesting
In Kharif: June 25~30 Days after sowing October~November
In Rabi/Winter: Oct~Nov 25~30 Days after sowing April~May
In Summer: 1~15 March 25~30 Days after sowing June~July

 

 

 

 

Q(4). What are the seed rate for Direct sown as well as Transplanted rice?

Answer

Seed Rate:

 

Q(5). Which fungicides can be used for seed treatment?

Answer

For seed treatment apply 60 gm Seresan 2.5% WP or other Organo Mercurial Fungicides (Seed should be dip in the water).

 

Q(6). How much areas should be required for nursery to transplanting one hectare of land?

Answer

Spacing : (a) 20x30 cm.
    (b) 2~3 Seedlings/Hill.
Area for Nursery : 1/20th Parts for 1 Hectare.

 

 

 

Q(7). What are the recommended dose of manures and fertilizers?

Answer

Manures and Fertilizers:

 

Q(8). Which crops can be grown for green mannuring?

Answer

Crops like Sanai, Dhaincha, Moong/Urd, etc. can be grown for green mannuring.

Q(9). Which weedicides can be used for effective control of weeds in rice field?

Answer

Effective weed management can be done by following methods:

(a) Hand Weeding - 2 Times

(b) Chemical Control

  1. Direct Sowing
  2. Transplanted Rice Field: Spray Anilophos 30 E.C. @ 0.4 Litres/Hectare or Oxyflorfen 200 gram/hectare or Butachlor 50 E.C. 2 Litres/Hectare in 600~700 Litres of water after 5~7 days of sowing to control all types of weeds. Standing water in the field shouldn't be greater than 5 cms.
  3. Deep Water Rice: Apply Butachlor 5% or Thiobencarb 5% or Anilophos 5% granules 20~25 Kg or Copper Sulphate Powder @ 15~20 Kg/Hectare mixed with 100 Kg sand and broadcast in the field after 2~3 days of transplanting to control aquatic weeds.

Q(10). Which insecticides/pesticides can be used for effective control of different insect/pests in rice field?

Answer

  1. Stem Borer/Leaf Cutting Insects: To control the insects like leaf roller, Case worm, Army insect, etc. spray Chlorpyriphos 1 Litre or Endosulfan or Quinolphos 1.5 Litre/Hectare and add Tipol 5 ml/litre of water during the time of spray. To control Babhani insects spray Phosphymidon @ 4~5 ml/10 litre of water or Monocrotophos @ 1ml/litre of water.
  2. Juice Sucking Insects: To control the insects like Madhua, Dhahiya insects and Thrips; apply granular insecticides like Carbofuron, Forate, Quinolphos, etc. Beside these, farmers can spray Phosphymidon @ 4~5 ml/10 litres of water or Monocrotophos @ 10 ml/10 litres of water or Methyl Dymeton (Metasystox) 1 ml/litre of water. Grow resistant rice varieties like Kanak, Satyam and Kishori to control insects like Madhua or broadcast Thimate 10% granules @ 10 Kg + 5 Kg Neem cake in 2~5 cms standing water in the field.
  3. Rice Gandhi Bug: To control the Rice Gandhi Bug broadcast Endosulfan 4% dust or Quinolphos 1.5% dust @ 10 Kg/acre.
  4. Gallmidge Fly (Sarha Insects):
  5. Brown and Green Hopper: To control both types of hopper, apply Furadon 3G granules @ 30 Kg/Hectare or Thimate 10% @ 10Kg/Hectare or Dimecron 100 E.C. @ 0.5 ml in 1 litre of water or Roger 30 E.C. @ 1.75 ml in 1 litre of water.
  6. Rice Hispa: Drain out the field. For chemical control apply Endosulfan 35 E.C. @ 1.25 litres/hectare or Quinolphos 25 E.C. @ 1.25 litres/hectare or Phosphymidon 85 E.C. @ 300 ml/hectare.
  7. Pests:

(i) Snails

(ii) Rats

Q(11). How we can manage different types of diseases in rice field?

Answer

 

1. Blast: Casual Organism: Pyricularia grisera
Symptoms: The leaves show spindle shaped spots with grey centre and dark brown margin. The lesions enlarge and cause drying of leaves. The nodes and neck regions turn black and cause rotting and breaking with complete/partial chaffiness of earhead. Intermittent drizzles, cloudy and overcast conditions, long dew periods, continuous low night temperature (below 20C), high relative humidity and susceptible varieties spread disease.

Control:

  • Grow resistant varieties like IR-20, IR-8, Jaya, Pankaj Ratna, etc.
  • Seed treatment with Agrosan G.N. or Seresan or Thiram or Carbendazim @ 2 gm/kg of seeds.
  • Spray 0.1% Hinosan 50 E.C. (4~5 times), Carbendazim 250 gm or Triclazole 75 wp @ 500 gm/hectare.
2. Brown Spot: Casual Organism: Helminthosporium Oryzae
Symptoms: The leaves show oval shaped foliar spots with yellow halo. Severely affected field presents a reddish appearance. Grain become discoloured.

Control:

  • Grow resistant varieties like IR-24, Bala, Krishna, etc.
  • Seed treatment with Thiram or Carbendazim @ 2gm/kg of seeds.
  • Spray Edifenphos @ 500 ml/hectare or Mancozeb @ 1kg/hectare.
  • Application of Neem coated urea.
3. Sheath Blight: Casual Organism: Rhizoctonia Solani
Symtoms: The disease affects at tillering stage. The infection starts in the form elliptical or oval greenish grey spots appearing on the leaf sheaths near the water level. These enlarge as irregular, elongated spots with white centre brown margin and progressively spread upwards on stem and leaves. The entire plant is blighted and dries up.

A dry spell followed by shower, high relative humidity, closer planting, excess N application favour to spread the disease.

Control:

  • Grow resistant varieties like Rajendra Dhan 201, IR-36, IR-20, Saket, Prabhat, Turant Dhan, Raj Shree, etc.
  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim @ 2gm/kg of seeds.
  • Adequate drainage facilities to be provided.
  • Spray Streptocyclin 250 gm and Blitox 50 E.C. @ 2.5 Kg in 1000 litres of water three times at 10~15 days interval; Endofil-M 45 @ 3 gm/litre of water.
4. Sheath Rot: Casual Organism: Saracladium Oryzae
Symptoms: The disease affects at booting stage. The uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the young panicle shows oblong or irregular spots with grey centre and brown margin. The boot leaf becomes brownish black and rotten. The grains ill filled and discoloured.

The disease spreads through air-borne conidia. Closer planting high humidity and low temperature (25~30C), injuries caused by earhead bugs, predispose the plants to infections.

Control:

  • Application of Gypsum @ 500 Kg/Hectare basally or in two equal splits (basal and tillering stage).
  • Spray Bavistin @ 500 Gm or Endofil-M 45 @ 2.5 Kg/Hectare, Dimecron or Metasystox along with Edifenphos @ 500 ml or Carbendazim @ 250 gm or Mancozeb @ 1 Kg/Hectare at boot leaf stage.
5. Bacterial Leaf Blight: Casual Organism: Xanthomonas Oryzae
Symptoms: It is also known as seedling blight in nursery. Death of young plants are observed 2~3 weeks after transplanting. Appear as yellowish or dull greenish water soaked spots or straw coloured lesions at the tip of the leaves which later extend downwards and towards the centre with characteristic wavy margins.

The leaf becomes blighted and turns straw coloured under cool and humid conditions, minute yellowish crusts or pearly, bead like bacterial exudates can be seen over the infected leaf tissue.

Control:

  • Grow resistant varieties like IR-20, IR-36, Saket-4, Rajendra Dhan 200, Pusa-2-21, Ratna, etc.
  • Spray 75 gm Agrimycin-100 and 500 gm Copper Oxychloride, e.g., Fytolan, Blitox 50 in 500 litres of water per hectare 3~4 times.
  • Spray Streptomycin Sulphate + Tetracyclin combination 300 gm + Copper Oxychloride @ 1.25 Kg/Hectare and repeat after after 10 days.
  •  Spray Nickel Nitrate @ 0.3%.
6. Rice Tungro Virus (RTV): The virus is transmitted by the Green Leaf Hopper N. Virescens and N. Niggropictus.
Symptoms: The diseased plants exhibit orange yellow discolouration of leaves from the tip downwards. The young leaves show mosaic mottling. The plants are dwarfed with poor tillering and become sterile.

Control:

  • Grow resistant varieties like IR-20, Ratna, etc.
  • Spray Dyzinon a.i. @ 1.5 Kg/Hectare 5 times. First spray 10 days after sowing and rest after transplanting at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days.
  • Use light trap to attract and control the leaf hopper vector.
7. Grain Discolouration:
The discoloured grains are found associated with fungi like Helminthosporium sp., Curvularia lunata, Saracladium oryzae, Alternaria tenuis, Fusarium moniliforme, Cephalosporium sp. and Phoma sp.

The disease appears on the grains during the maturity stage when there is incessant rains. The disease is more severe during 2nd season.

Control:

  • Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan @ 1 Gm/Kg of Seed.
  • Spray Mancozeb @ 1Kg or IBP 500 ml or Carbendazim @ 250 Gm/Hectare at boot leaf stage.