Frequently Asked Questions
This section is dedicated to providing answers to commonly asked questions by the farmers regarding rice cultivation in general and particular in Bihar.
|1.||Which varieties have been under cultivation in Bihar in different eco-systems?|
|2.||Under which soil and climatic conditions rice can be successfully grown?|
|3.||When Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting can be done for better rice yield?|
|4.||What are the seed rate for Direct sown as well as Transplanted rice?|
|5.||Which fungicides can be used for seed treatment?|
|6.||How much areas should be required for nursery to transplanting one hectare of land?|
|7.||What are the recommended dose of manures and fertilizers?|
|8.||Which crops can be grown for green mannuring?|
|9.||Which weedicides can be used for effective control of weeds in rice field?|
|10.||Which insecticides/pesticides can be used for effective control of different insects/pests in rice field?|
|11.||How we can manage different types of diseases in rice field?|
Q(1). Which varieties have been under cultivation in Bihar in different eco-systems?
Recommended varieties are -
(A) For Kharif Season
(B) For Winter Season
(C) For Summer Season
(D) Scented Rice
(E) Hybrid Rice
Note: For more details of the rice varieties recommended for different states, kindly see Rice Varieties in India in our web-site.
Q(2). Under which soil and climatic conditions rice can be successfully grown?
|Soil||:||Heavy to Sandy Loam and almost all types of soil.|
Q(3). When Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting can be done for better rice yield?
Time of Sowing, Transplanting and Harvesting are as follows:
|In Kharif: June||25~30 Days after sowing||October~November|
|In Rabi/Winter: Oct~Nov||25~30 Days after sowing||April~May|
|In Summer: 1~15 March||25~30 Days after sowing||June~July|
Q(4). What are the seed rate for Direct sown as well as Transplanted rice?
Q(5). Which fungicides can be used for seed treatment?
For seed treatment apply 60 gm Seresan 2.5% WP or other Organo Mercurial Fungicides (Seed should be dip in the water).
Q(6). How much areas should be required for nursery to transplanting one hectare of land?
|Spacing||:||(a) 20x30 cm.|
|(b) 2~3 Seedlings/Hill.|
|Area for Nursery||:||1/20th Parts for 1 Hectare.|
Q(7). What are the recommended dose of manures and fertilizers?
Manures and Fertilizers:
Q(8). Which crops can be grown for green mannuring?
Crops like Sanai, Dhaincha, Moong/Urd, etc. can be grown for green mannuring.
Q(9). Which weedicides can be used for effective control of weeds in rice field?
Effective weed management can be done by following methods:
(a) Hand Weeding - 2 Times
(b) Chemical Control
Q(10). Which insecticides/pesticides can be used for effective control of different insect/pests in rice field?
- For effective control of snails, collect their eggs and dip in 10% salt solution.
- To kill the snails apply Carbofuron 3G @ 25 Kg/Hectare.
- Aluminum Phosphoric - keep 3 gm pillets in each live burrow and close the hole with mud.
- Zinc Phosphoid - Mix 1 gm Zinc Phosphoid with 40 parts edible floor + linseed oil and make 5 gm pillets as bait.
- Bromodiolon - Keep 15~20 gm poisonous bait in each burrow.
Q(11). How we can manage different types of diseases in rice field?
|1.||Blast: Casual Organism: Pyricularia grisera|
|Symptoms: The leaves show spindle shaped spots with grey centre and dark brown margin. The lesions enlarge and cause drying of leaves. The nodes and neck regions turn black and cause rotting and breaking with complete/partial chaffiness of earhead. Intermittent drizzles, cloudy and overcast conditions, long dew periods, continuous low night temperature (below 20°C), high relative humidity and susceptible varieties spread disease.
|2.||Brown Spot: Casual Organism: Helminthosporium Oryzae|
|Symptoms: The leaves show oval shaped foliar spots with yellow halo. Severely affected field presents a reddish appearance. Grain become discoloured.
|3.||Sheath Blight: Casual Organism: Rhizoctonia Solani|
|Symtoms: The disease affects at tillering stage. The infection starts in the form elliptical or oval greenish grey spots appearing on the leaf sheaths near the water level. These enlarge as irregular, elongated spots with white centre brown margin and progressively spread upwards on stem and leaves. The entire plant is blighted and dries up.
A dry spell followed by shower, high relative humidity, closer planting, excess N application favour to spread the disease.
|4.||Sheath Rot: Casual Organism: Saracladium Oryzae|
|Symptoms: The disease affects at booting stage. The uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the young panicle shows oblong or irregular spots with grey centre and brown margin. The boot leaf becomes brownish black and rotten. The grains ill filled and discoloured.
The disease spreads through air-borne conidia. Closer planting high humidity and low temperature (25~30°C), injuries caused by earhead bugs, predispose the plants to infections.
|5.||Bacterial Leaf Blight: Casual Organism: Xanthomonas Oryzae|
|Symptoms: It is also known as seedling blight in nursery. Death of young plants are observed 2~3 weeks after transplanting. Appear as yellowish or dull greenish water soaked spots or straw coloured lesions at the tip of the leaves which later extend downwards and towards the centre with characteristic wavy margins.
The leaf becomes blighted and turns straw coloured under cool and humid conditions, minute yellowish crusts or pearly, bead like bacterial exudates can be seen over the infected leaf tissue.
|6.||Rice Tungro Virus (RTV): The virus is transmitted by the Green Leaf Hopper N. Virescens and N. Niggropictus.|
|Symptoms: The diseased plants exhibit orange yellow discolouration of leaves from the tip downwards. The young leaves show mosaic mottling. The plants are dwarfed with poor tillering and become sterile.
|The discoloured grains are found associated with fungi like Helminthosporium sp., Curvularia lunata, Saracladium oryzae, Alternaria tenuis, Fusarium moniliforme, Cephalosporium sp. and Phoma sp.
The disease appears on the grains during the maturity stage when there is incessant rains. The disease is more severe during 2nd season.