Basmati Rice in India : Its Export Potential
Basmati Rice means the rice varieties possessing aroma and gives pleasant flavour after cooking. In India Basmati rice is characterized by extra long, superfine slender grains having a length to breadth ratio of more than 3.5, sweet taste, soft texture, delicate curvature and an extra elongation with least breadth-wise swelling on cooking. The Basmati rice is also stated to be the Pearl of Rice.
These superfine best quality of Basmati rice are most preferred specially for Biryani and Pulao preparation on special occasion and also meant for high premium value in the national and international market.
Basmati rice is mostly grown in the traditional areas of north and north western part of Indian sub-continent for many centuries. The super-fine best quality of Basmati rice is produced on either side of Indus valley in India. Its different varieties are mostly cultivated in the districts of Karnal, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Amritsar, Fatehgarh, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Patiala, Ropar and Sangrur in Punjab; Kangra, Solan, Una, Mandi and Sirmour in Himachal Pradesh; Bundi in Rajasthan and in several districts of Uttar Pradesh. Some important districts of Uttar Pradesh are Saharanpur, Muzaffar Nagar, Piliphit, Bareily, Bijnour, Moradabad, Jyotibaphule Nagar, Rampur, Raibareily, Sitapur and Udham Singh Nagar; Haridwar and Dehradoon in Uttaranchal. Also, Basmati rice is grown to limited extent in Jammu and Kashmir. Various aromatic varieties of Basmati rice grown in India is given in Table-1.
|Area, Production and Yield of Basmati Rice|
The total area presently under cultivation of Basmati rice is about 7,76,000 hectares in India and its production estimated at about 11,96,000 tonnes during 1998-99. There is a substantial increase of Basmati in traditional Basmati growing areas. The largest area under Basmati rice is in the State of Haryana (60%) followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.1%) and Punjab (16.1%). During 1998-99, the State of Haryana contributed nearly 55% of the total Basmati rice production in the country followed by Uttar Pradesh at 23.5% and Punjab at 12.4%. The productivity of Basmati rice ranges from 15 to 18 Quintals/Hectare. The lower yield of Basmati rice is known for its tall and weak stature of the plant causing lodging. Besides, poor response of the fertilizers, susceptibility to pests and diseases and less number of spike lets per panicle. State-wise area, production and yield of Basmati rice during 1997-98 to 1999-2000 are given in Table-2.
Source : Directorate of Rice Development, Patna